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By Christian Puff

Biosystematic reports at the Rubiaceae have a protracted culture on the Institute of Botany in Vienna. inside this family members the Anthospermeae, and particularly its African and Madagascan participants, are of specific curiosity as a result of a number of features of their evolution: I) Perfection of anemophily inside of an in a different way approximately solely zoophilous family members; 2) transitions from hermaphrodity to polygamy and eventually dioecy; three) differentiation from huge and long-lived shrubs to short-lived herbs; four) adaptive radiation from humid to seasonally dry, fire-exposed and xeric habitats. notwithstanding, morphological variety associated with sexual differentia­ tion, modificatory plasticity, and eco-geographical polymorphism have for a very long time hampered our realizing of the relationships between those African Anthospermeae. hence, it was once principal to place specific emphasis on box observations and to hold out a number of experiments with cultivated crops as well as the research of a massive herbarium fabric. the writer, therefore, performed wide box paintings, frequently below very hostile stipulations, and coated so much African nations from Ethiopia to Southern Africa and two times visited Madagascar. during this means a mess of information was once accrued at the team in recognize to germination and development shape, vegetative and reproductive morphology, anatomy and biology, embryology, karyology, crossing relationships, phytochemistry, distribu­ tion and ecology, etc.

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20 for explanation and magnification 4. Leaves 55 cylinder), the fruits (epidermis) and the testa cells of Anthospermum, Nenax and Galopina species. The epidermis of Nenax cinerea and Carpacoce heteromorpha: N. cinerea has a truly multilayered (multiple) epidermis (rather than a hypoderm; see NAPP-ZINN 1973-1974 for a discussion of these terms) (Figs. 24 a, 25 f). It was observed that in young leaves the epidermal cells of both surfaces undergo several periclinal divisions (cf. Fig. 24 a'), giving rise - on the outside - to small papillae which eventually cover the entire leaf surface (cf.

Spathulatum become ± rounded, many-stemmed shrubs, hardly taller than 30 cm, with a dense "network" of irregularly branched, intertwining twigs, while plants normally are few- to single-stemmed, regularly (decussately) branched and much taller (cf. Fig. 5). 3. 1. Indumentum, Cortex, Cork In all genera of the Anthosperminae, the young stems are usually covered with papillae or hairs whose lengths range from ca 20 to 1 000 ~m. Except in Galopina tomentosa, where occasional multicellular hairs were observed (in addition to unicellular ones), the papillae and hairs are unicellular; their sculpturing is similar to that of the hairs and papillae on leaves or fruits (compare Figs.

Hispidulum (PUFF 790225- 1/2). c C. scabra subsp. rupestris (TAYLOR 6564). d N. cinera (PUFF 790711111). e A. hispidulum (PUFF 780312-111), tip of revolute leaf from below. f A. ericifolium (ESTERHUYSEN 28054), leaf margin. g N. hirta subsp. hirta (PUFF 800910211), stem hairs. h-i hair surfaces, h N. hirta subsp. hirta (fruit; PUFF 800910-211), i A. ga/pinii (fruit; PUFF 790303-211). - a-c, e critical point dried, all others herbarium material. a-d, g x 232; e x 35; f x 70; h-i x 1 628 4. Leaves Fig.

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