By Borovikov V. A.
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Extra resources for Abstracts OS 3: Optical communications
14. 15. Example content download ringing tones to several MB music ﬁles. The download times should preferably be low, which puts high requirements on the radio bit rate, especially for the large downloads with several 100 kB. 4 Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service, MBMS A new service introduced in 3GPP Release 6 speciﬁcations is Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (MBMS). There are two high level modes of operation in MBMS, as given in  1. Broadcast mode, which allows sending audio and video.
The macro cell base stations are located on masts or rooftops where the GPS signal can be easily received. IS-95 base stations need to be synchronised and this synchronisation is typically obtained via GPS. The need for a GPS signal makes the deployment of the indoor and micro cells more problematic, since GPS reception is difﬁcult without line-of-sight connection to the GPS satellites. Therefore, WCDMA is designed to operate with asynchronous base stations where no synchronisation from GPS is needed.
The weakness is that the link will usually not be fully utilised if the ﬁle to transfer is large. The decreased link utilisation lowers the end user bit rate for large ﬁles if the air interface bit rate is high. 0 introduces standard Internet protocols to the WAP protocol stacks. 0 more efﬁcient when transferring large ﬁles over radio links with high bit rates. To make TCP even more efﬁcient for mobile systems, a particular ﬂavour called wireless TCP (wTCP) has been deﬁned. The wTCP protocol is based on standard TCP features, but in wTCP the support of certain features is mandatory and recommendations for parameter values have been aligned to cope with the higher packet round trip time in wireless networks.