By S. Craig, M. Martinez
This e-book represents a big step in bringing jointly a number of strands of analysis approximately attitudinal ambivalence and public opinion. Essays by means of a individual workforce of political scientists and social psychologists supply a conceptual framework for knowing how ambivalence is at the moment understood and measured, in addition to its relevance to the mass public's ideals approximately our political associations and nationwide id. The theoretical insights, methodological thoughts, and empirical analyses will upload considerably to our wisdom concerning the nature of ambivalence particularly, and the constitution and evolution of political attitudes as a rule.
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It is not especially meaningful, in our understanding, to describe as ambivalent a respondent who experiences both positive and negative feelings not simultaneously but in seriatum, alternating between likes and dislikes about parties or candidates or policies. We therefore contend that the inferential approach to measuring ambivalence is better than its competitors: It has allowed us to document the effect of two policy areas simultaneously, and to demonstrate that additional information served both to make response variability increase and to demonstrably change the nature of choices made by respondents.
For that matter, the simultaneous presence of positive and negative emotional evaluations of an individual or policy problem also need not identify ambivalence. From the 1960s forward, social psychologists have wrestled with the notions of imbalance (Heider 1946) and cognitive dissonance (Festinger 1957) by noting that subjects appear to be willing to carry around such contradictory feelings without a trace of internalized conflict. Although imbalance and cognitive dissonance were thought to be noxious states that people would be motivated to avoid, we actually are equipped with a variety of mental mechanisms to facilitate the separation of seemingly inconsistent cognitions.
Ambivalence and Accessibility The Consequences of Accessible Ambivalence Ian R. Newby-Clark, Ian McGregor, and Mark P. Zanna V alues reflect, and can drive, human strivings (Verplanken and Holland 2002). We value peace and strive for a less violent world. We value benevolence and strive to be loving. We value independence and strive for autonomy. , Schwartz 1996; Tetlock et al. 1996). The nature of psychologists’ taxonomies of values reflects this psychological reality. According to Schwartz, values fall along two dimensions.