By Toshi H. Arimura
Focusing on pollution, power potency and weather switch, this ebook presents an creation to Japan’s environmental rules and laws, and provides fiscal analyses and RIAs (Regulatory effect research) of environmental rules carried out or deliberate by way of the nationwide and native governments. the outlet bankruptcy studies environmental economics and descriptions the present prestige of RIAs in Japan. bankruptcy 2 analyzes the NOx-PM Act, which prohibits using previous and polluting automobiles in metropolitan parts. bankruptcy three examines a Tokyo metropolitan govt legislation which calls for deploy of pollutants keep an eye on gear in older vehicles that fail to fulfill emission criteria. bankruptcy four strains the impression of the NOx-PM Act at the used motor vehicle industry and used motor vehicle exports. bankruptcy five provides an financial research of a street toll relief, revealing an unforeseen destructive social effect: it elevated traffic jam and linked environmental difficulties. the ultimate 3 chapters handle rules and laws on the topic of power potency and weather swap bankruptcy 6 evaluates the effectiveness of Japan’s strength Conservation Act, initially brought in 1979 and amended a variety of instances to handle weather swap. bankruptcy 7 anticipates the effect of a proposed economy-wide carbon tax, utilizing input-output research to evaluate non permanent monetary affects in every one quarter. additionally provided this is an exam of the effectiveness of a discounted carbon tax for energy-intensive industries, with a dialogue of the effect of the concept on families. the ultimate bankruptcy discusses the position and barriers of monetary versions for comparing Japan’s mid-term GHG (Greenhouse gasoline) emission aim in the course of the post-Kyoto interval. this can be the 1st publication to judge eastern environmental guidelines from an monetary viewpoint, utilizing a number of present quantitative methods. Its findings and proposals will gain scholars, coverage makers and executive officers in constructing and built nations the place the general public faces related environmental problems.
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Additional resources for An Evaluation of Japanese Environmental Regulations: Quantitative Approaches from Environmental Economics
Let MECp represent the average MEC for pollutant p (NOx or PM). The total benefit by 2004 is then expressed as follows: XXX ð2:11Þ TB ¼ bTERt, p Â MEC p Â expfÀi Â ðt À 2004Þgc t p The first Σ indicates that emissions reductions per vehicle type are summed across all types of vehicles in the enforcement areas. 5 presents the MEC estimates that we used in our analysis. We used estimates from the European Union (NETCEN) (2002) and those in the work of Koyama and Kishimoto (2001) for the benefits of NOx reduction and PM reduction, respectively.
004 g/l for PM (e0p ¼ 0:004), which is approximately 40 times more stringent than it was 20 years ago. The shaded part of Fig. 5 is the volume of emissions reduction achieved by the VTR. , the end of their average life expectancy)À and then replaced with new Á p trucks complying with the latest stringent standard e0 ¼ 0:004 . Hence, even in the absence of the VTR, the amount of emissions decreases because the emissions standard for new trucks becomes more stringent. However, this reduction in emissions must be distinguished from the reductions achieved by the VTR.
PM emissions intensity improved substantially because the emission standard became stringent more rapidly since 1993 compared with NOx unit regulation (see Fig. 1). When measuring the volume of emissions reduction, we did not account for compliance methods other than replacement, such as moving/registering regulated vehicles outside of the enforcement areas and reducing the number of vehicles owned. Hence, the effect of emissions reduction refers only to the effect of replacement. Our estimate does not incorporate the possibility that the total number of vehicles changes after 2004; depending on economic conditions, firms may either increase or decrease the number of new vehicles that they purchase.