By Alexander Rainy Maclean Murray
First released in 1953, this seminal advent to political philosophy is meant for either the scholar of political thought and for the final reader. After an advent and is the reason the character and goal of philosophy, Dr Murray offers a severe exam of the primary theories complicated by way of political philosophers from Plato to Marx, paying specified awareness to modern concerns. The ebook additionally attempts to outline the fundamental problems with philosophical value in modern politics, with exact connection with the clash among political authority and person rights, and to teach how different ethical assumptions underlying authoritarian and democratic structures of presidency are eventually dependent upon assorted theories of common sense.
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C. at the age of sixty-two. C. He was sent to Athens at the age of eighteen for higher education, and was a member of Plato's Academy for twenty years. , particularly marine biology. C. he became tutor to Alexander, Prince of Macecbn, afterwards Alexander the Great, who was then a boy of thirteen. There is no indication, however, that he exercised any influence on Alexander's character. The Politics makes it clear that he disliked all types of dictatorship and, like Plato, thought that the small city state, which had no political ambitions, provided the most favourable environment for the good life.
For if moral distinctions are a priori, it follows that there is an unconditional obligation to observe them, and thus to obey without question those who,fromtheir knowledge of morality, can say how human affairs ought to be conducted. In simpler language, if goodness is a possible object of knowledge, then those who have attained to knowledge of it have a right to tell those who lack this knowledge what they ought to do; and the only way of ensuring that a community is rightly governed will be to give absolute power to those who know what is good and can be relied on to apply the rule of right in all they do.
Finally there is, in the Ideal State, a fourth element which pervades all classes and maintains them in their proper relationship to each other. This, Socrates suggests, is what is meant byjustice, or the fundamental virtue of a good state. It maintains the natural harmony which ensures the proper functioning of all the parts. Just as the health of the physical body depends on a pervading harmony between its different organs, so the virtue of a state depends upon a harmony between its different parts.