By Y. C. Fung
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Extra info for Biodynamics: Circulation
Fig. 5 :2. An excised bovine heart valve membrane was installed across the entrance to the curved section , as indicated by the short line drawn at S. Fluid flow was directed down the straight tube into a water-filled tank and it was observed that little, if any, motion occurred in the curved part of the D as shown in Fig. 5: 2(a) . The straight-through flow was then halted by occluding the tube, thereupon the fluid began to circulate in the curved portion of 0 , as indicated in Fig. 5 :2(b). The circulating fluid in the curved tube caused the valve to close against the forward flow coming from A.
5 How Are the Heart Valves Operated? 5: 3 Henderson and Johnson's third experiment. au 1 ap at -p ax' (2) Now, when the flow in AB is caused to decelerate, au/at takes on a negative value. Accordingly, the pressure gradient ap/ax, must take on a positive value. Thus, the pressure at B becomes higher than that at A. This causes the fluid initially at rest in the curved section C to be set in motion, in the direction shown in Fig. 5 :2. Other experiments sketched in Figs. 5 : 3 can be explained similarly.
ENDOC ARDIUM '1t'l'lIm~ jJ~ III 7~~. :iiiiiI to 3iilJiia:4 M ID · WA LL to 0 ~v 10 lllAlL '00 IH( KhESS . \ -' 0 -00 - ... 2: 3 Variat ion of the inclinat ion of the muscle fibers in the left ventricular wall of the dog fro m the apex-to -base (longitud inal) direction . F rom Streeter et al. ( 1969), by permission. 3 The Electric System 29 epicardium, the muscle fibers are oriented from the apex to the base, or , if we borrow the language used in geography in describing features on the globe , we say that the fibers are arranged in the direction of the longitudes.