Download Carbon Chemistry (Essential Chemistry) by Krista West PDF

By Krista West

Krista West describes how carbon is an important aspect for all times on the earth, the way it is located in daily life, and what's being performed to offset the elevated carbon emissions.

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Indd 29 12/2/09 9:48:48 AM 30 CARBON CHEMISTRY There are huge numbers of compounds containing benzene rings in which one or more of the hydrogens is replaced by another atom. This other atom may be a carbon that, in turn, is bonded to other carbons and even other ring structures. OTHER KINDS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS In addition to alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes, which have been described above, there are many kinds of organic compounds. The millions of different carbon compounds are divided into families according to their functional groups, which are atoms or groups of atoms that give the molecules their characteristic properties.

If photosynthesis and respiration worked in perfect balance, all of the carbon dioxide produced by respiration and other processes would be taken up by plants and other photosynthesizing organisms; all of the oxygen produced by photosynthesis would be taken up by animals and other organisms that use oxygen for respiration. However, this isn’t the case. 5 of 1%, the concentration of oxygen is almost 21%. This excess oxygen in the atmosphere is counterbalanced by the buried carbon, organic matter in sediments, and in fossil fuels.

These intelligent, silicon-based life forms looked a little like burnt marshmallows, yet intelligently defended their store of eggs against the unaware human invaders. Silicon is chemically similar to carbon. An atom of silicon, like an atom of carbon, has four electrons in its outermost shell, and these electrons are available for forming chemical bonds. Like carbon, silicon can bond with four other elements to create a huge range of different compounds. This fact alone, some say, makes silicon a possible backbone for biological molecules.

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