By Daniel Collins
Voice over IP bargains reasonable lengthy distance mobilephone providers, however the caliber is low. A consultant to "carrier caliber" voice over IP, this ebook exhibits find out how to use signalling schemes, caliber of provider recommendations and latest protocols to bring a top quality voice over IP carrier.
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Extra resources for Carrier Grade Voice Over IP
The answer varies. 18 should be routed on interface B. 0. The IP route mask is basically a string of 1s followed by a string of 0s. A logical AND is performed between the mask and the destination address in the packet to determine whether it should be routed over a particular interface. If, after the AND operation, the address of the packet to be routed matches the address in the routing table, then there is a match—and you should use the corresponding interface. 0. This result corresponds to the table entry previously mentioned, and the corresponding route from the router should be used.
Transporting Voice by Using IP 33 ■ Presentation layer Specifies the language to be used between applications. , whether certain pieces of information are coded as ASCII or binary). ■ Application layer Provides an interface to the user (or at least, to the user application). For example, file transfer programs and Web browsers belong to the application layer. Figure 2-3 shows a correlation between the IP protocol suite and the OSI model. We can see that IP itself resides at layer 3. Above IP, we have a choice of protocols: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or the User Datagram Protocol (UDP).
Then, the data is passed down to Figure 2-3 The IP suite and the OSI stack Layer 7 - Application Layer 6 - Presentation Applications and Services Layer 5 - Session Layer 4 - Transport TCP or UDP Layer 3 - Network IP Layer 2 - Data Link Data Link Layer 1 - Physical Layer 1 - Physical Chapter Two 34 Figure 2-4 Packet structure Frame Header IP Header TCP / UDP Header Application Data Frame Trailer Transmission direction the data link layer, where it is packaged into a frame structure for transmission.